IJBA Volume 3, Issue 1, 2023

Development, Validity, and Reliability of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) Module as a Tool to Enhance Self-Esteem among Juvenile Offenders in Juvenile Rehabilitation
Nur Sharina Binti Cik Ibrahim, Syaripah Ruzaini Bt Syed Aris

This research aimed to develop the Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) module as a tool to enhance self-esteem among juvenile offenders in juvenile rehabilitation and to examine the validity and reliability of the module. The construction of this module is based on the module construction procedures from Jamaluddin (2005) and Russell (1974), which is based on the construction of goals, theory, rationale, targets, needs, and objectives of the module. This module is built based on Russell’s Model approach (1974) which contains 8 steps of module construction. This study design used a combination of survey and qualitative study. To measure the reliability of the module and the instrument, the researcher runs a pilot test with one subject and goes through the whole session of the module with the subject and conducts an interview with the subject. The interview questions for reliability are based on the module objective. This method of reliability is called cross-check technique and repetition of interviews. (Vale 1998; Russell 1974). While to obtain the validity of the module for this study, the external critic’s method by the module expert was used. The validity content of the module is calculated by a formula and producing 93% of the average score (high validity).

Keywords: Neuro-Linguistic Programming Module, Self-Esteem, Juveniles Offender, validity, reliability.

List of references


Abd. Rashid Johar. (1980). Prinsip-prinsip Asas Pengukuran dan Penilaian Dalam Pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Moden Akademik.

Anastasi, A. (1990). Psychological Testing. 5th edition. New York: MacMillan.

Baumeister, R.F., Campbell, J.D., Krueger, J.I., & Vohs, K.D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 1-44.

C. Gilligan, In a different voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (1982).

Craeger & Murray. (1985). The international encyclopedia of education. Oxford: Pergamon Press Ltd.

D. Molden and P. Hutchinson, Brilliant NLP. Great Britain: Pearson Education Ltd., 2008.

Gecas, Viktor. 1982. “The Self-Concept.” Annual Review of Sociology 8:1–33.

H.B. Kaplan, Self-Attitudes and Deviant Behavior. Good Year Publishing, Pacific Palisades, California (1975).

Husen, Torsten. & Postlethwaite, T. Neville. (1985). The International Encyclopedia of education: research and studies. Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press.

Jamaludin Ahmad. (2008). Modul dan pengendalian bimbingan kelompok. Serdang, Selangor: Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Jamaludin Ahmad. (2002). Kesahan, kebolehpercayaan, dan keberkesanan modul program maju diri ke atas motivasi pencapaian di kalangan pelajar-pelajar sekolah menengah negeri Selangor. Unpublished Philosophy of Doctorate Thesis. Serdang, Selangor: Universiti Putra Malaysia.

K. Stone, “Influential people.” The British Journal of Administrative Management, pp. 22-23, 2005.

Lee, Kyungeun & Lee, Julie. (2012). Self-esteem and delinquency in South Korean adolescents: Latent growth modeling. School Psychology International.

Liz Hartz, Adrian, and Lynette Thick. (2005). Art therapy strategies to raise self-esteem in female juvenile offenders: A comparison of art therapy and art as therapy approaches.

Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Batts Allen, A., & Hancock, J. (2007). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: the implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of personality and social psychology, 92(5), 887.

Lynn, M. R. (1986). Determination and Quantification of Content Validity. Nursing Research, 35(6), 382–385. http://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198611000-00017

M. Rosenberg, C. Schooler, & C. Schoolbench, Self-esteem and adolescent problems: modeling reciprocal effects. American Sociological Review, 54 (1989) 1004.

Mohammad Aziz Shah Mohamed Arip (2018). ‘Pembinaan Dan Pengujian Modul’. Psychology And Counselling Academy.

Mohamad Sahari Nordin. (2002). Testing and interpreting in classrooms. International Islamic University of Malaysia Publications.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–396. doi:10.1037/h0054346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

Meyer, G. R., & Colombo Plan Staff College for Technician Education (Singapore). (1988). Modules: From design to implementation. Manila: Colombo Plan Staff College for Technician Education.

Mruk, C. (1999) Self-esteem: Research Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. London: Free Association Books.

N.J. Smelser and J. Vasconcellos (1989) The Social Importance of Self Esteem. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Russell J. D. 1974. Modular Instruction: A Guide to the Design, Selection, Utilization, and Evaluation of Modular Materials. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess Publishing Company.

Rosenberg, Morris. 1976. “Beyond Self-Esteem: The Neglected Issues in Self-concept Research.” Paper presented at the annual meetings of the ASA.

Richey, R. C., & Klein, J. (2007). Design and Development Research: Methods, Strategies, and Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Sharifah Alwiah Alsagoff (1986). Ilmu pendidikan: pedagogi. Kuala Lumpur: Heinemann

Silverstone, H., & Salsali, M. (2003). Low Self-Esteem and Psychiatric Patients: Part I – The Relationship Between Low Self-Esteem and Psychiatric Diagnosis.

Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaluddin Ahmad. (2005). Pembinaan Modul: Bagaimana membina modul latihan dan modul akademik. Serdang, Selangor: Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Sidek Mohd Noah. (2000). Rekabentuk Penyelidikan. Serdang, Selangor: Institut Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh (IDEAL), Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Sharifah Alwiah Alsagoff (1985). Sosiologi Pendidikan Petaling Jaya, Selangor: Heinemann Educational Malaysia.

Suppiah Nachiappan, Kamarulzaman Kamaruddin, Abd. Aziz. Shukor, Ramlah Jantan, Roslida Mustapha & Hazalizah Hamzah. 2009. Pembelajaran dan Perkembangan Pelajar. Shah Alam: Oxford Pelajar.

Tuckman, Bruce W. Measuring Educational Outcomes, Fundamental of Testing. USA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 1975.

Ulrich Orth and Richard W. Robins. (2014). The Development of Self-esteem. Journal of Current Directions in Psychological Science.

The Role of Cultural Dimensions in Shaping Impulse Buying Behavior among Young Consumers: A Study of the Apparel Industry in Sri Lanka
Asanga Ranasinghe, Chok Nyen Vui, Mamata Bhandar, Supaprawat Siripipatthanakul

With the advent of digital connectivity, customers, especially young customers are getting more and more exposed to world trends and apparel styles in the world of fashion today providing opportunities for marketers to promote impulse buying of products or services that are greatly influenced by the cultural background of these customers. This study aims to determine the role of the cultural dimensions in shaping the impulse buying behavior of young customers in apparel shopping, specifically in Sri Lanka. The study is based on the qualitive research that uses primary data through twenty semi-structured interviews, and secondary data related to cultural dimensions of Sri Lanka collected through Hofstede’s official website. Moreover, a thematic analysis technique has been adopted to analyze the interview responses. The findings revealed that young customers in Sri Lanka engages in impulsive buying occasionally. Usually, the categories that get bought impulsively are cloths, beauty and personal care products while their purchase decisions is generally based on others’ opinions as Sri Lanka is a collectivist society where people value family, extended family, or extended partnerships. It was observed though Sri Lankans prefer a more long-term orientation, this study found that most customers saw short term utility value in their clothing based on the most recent trends and styles rather than buying for their future usage.

Keywords: impulse buying behavior, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, power distance, long-term-short-term orientation, masculinity-femininity

Ranasinghe, A., Nyen Vui, C., Bhandar, M., & Siripipatthanakul, S. (2023). The Role of Cultural Dimensions in Shaping Impulse Buying Behavior among Young Consumers: A Study of the Apparel Industry in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Behavioral Analytics, 3(1), 26.

In-text citation
(Ranasinghe et al., 2023)
Ranasinghe et al. (2023)

List of references


For Journal
Albers-Miller, N.D. and Gelb, B.D., 1996. Business advertising appeals as a mirror of cultural dimensions: A study of eleven countries. Journal of advertising, 25(4), pp.57-70. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1996.10673512

Briley, D. A., & Aaker, J. L. (2006). When does culture matter? Effects of personal knowledge on the correction of culture-based judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 43(3), 395-408. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.43.3.395

Beatty, S. E. and M. E. Ferrell (1998). “Impulse buying: Modeling its precursors.” Journal of Retailing 74(2): 169-191.

Chowdhury, F. (2021). The Impact of Culture on Impulse Buying Behavior in Bangladesh (No. jmmr270). Global Academy of Training and Research (GATR) Enterprise.

Cakanlar, A., & Nguyen, T. (2019). The influence of culture on impulse buying. Journal of Consumer Marketing.

De Mooij, M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29 (1), 85-110.

Dameyasani, A. W., & Abraham, J. (2013). Impulsive buying, cultural values dimensions, and symbolic meaning of money: A study on college students in Indonesia’s capital city and its surrounding. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 2(4).

Holbrook, M. B., & Schindler, R. M. (1994). Age, sex, and attitude toward the past as predictors of consumers’ aesthetic tastes for cultural products. Journal of Marketing Research, 31(3), 412-422.

Hsu, H. J., & Burns, L. D. (2012). The effects of culture, long-term orientation, and gender on consumers’ perceptions of clothing values. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 40(10), 1585-1595.

Istudor, N., & Pelau, C. (2013). Impulsive buying behavior depending on gender. The International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology (IJMSIT), (10-(Dec)), 138-146.

Iram, M., & Chacharkar, D. Y. (2017). Model of impulse buying behavior. BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research, 9(1), 45.

Khuong, M. N., & Tran, T. B. (2015). Factors affecting impulse buying toward fashion products in Ho Chi Minh City—A mediation analysis of hedonic purchase. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 6(4), 223-229.

Kacen, J. J., & Lee, J. A. (2002). The influence of culture on consumer impulsive buying behavior. Journal of consumer psychology, 12(2), 163-176.

Lalwani, A.K., Shavitt, S. and Johnson, T. (2006), “What is the relation between cultural orientation and socially desirable responding?”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 90No. 1, pp. 165-178.

Li, Y. (2015). Impact of impulsive buying behavior on postimpulsive buying satisfaction. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 43(2), 339-351.

Lim, P. L., & Yazdanifard, R. (2015). What internal and external factors influence impulsive buying behavior in online shopping?. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 15(5), 25-32.

Lee, J. A., & Kacen, J. J. (2008). Cultural influences on consumer satisfaction with impulse and planned purchase decisions. Journal of Business Research, 61(3), 265-272.

Muruganantham, G., & Bhakat, R. S. (2013). A review of impulse buying behavior. International journal of marketing studies, 5(3), 149.

Nguyen, T., & Cakanlar, Ö. A. (2016). The influence of culture on impulse buying: a cross-cultural study on impulse buying.

Park, J. E., & Choi, E. J. (2013). Consequences of impulse buying cross-culturally: A qualitative study. International Journal of Software Engineering and its Applications, 7(1), 247.

Piron, F. (1991). Defining impulse purchasing. ACR North American Advances.

Pornpitakpan, C., Yuan, Y., & Han, J. H. (2017). The effect of salespersons’ retail service quality and consumers’ mood on impulse buying. Australasian Marketing Journal, 25(1), 2-11.

Ranasinghe, A & Chok, N V (2022), Investigating sustainable competitive advantage in higher educational institutions of Sri Lanka: A price moderation perspective, International Journal of Business, Marketing and Communication, Vol.2 (4), No. 28, 2022, 1-15

Shoham, A., Gavish, Y., & Segev, S. (2015). A cross-cultural analysis of impulsive and compulsive buying behaviors among Israeli and US consumers: The influence of personality traits and cultural values. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 27(3), 187-206.

Stern, H. (1962). “The significance of impulse buying today.” Journal of Marketing 26(2): 59-62.

Verplanken, B., & Sato, A. (2011). The psychology of impulse buying: an integrative self-regulation approach. Journal of Consumer Policy, 34(2), 197–210.

Yue, C. Y., & Razak, A. Z. A. A. (2018). Impulse Buying Behavior among Working Ladies: A Literature Review. International Journal of Accounting, Finance, and Business, 3(13), 26-34.

Zhang, Y., Winterich, K. P., & Mittal, V. (2010). Power distance belief and impulsive buying. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(5), 945-954.

For Book
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online readings in psychology and culture, 2(1), 2307-0919.

Hofstede, G. H., & Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. sage.

Hofstede, G. and Bond, M.H. (1988) ‘The Confucius connection: from cultural roots to economic growth’, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp.5–21.

Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.

Lewis, D. (2013). The Buying Impulse–The How and Why of What We Buy. In impulse (pp. 149-161). Harvard University Press.

Rodrigues, R. I., Lopes, P., & Varela, M. (2021). Factors affecting impulse buying behavior of consumers. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 697080.

For Website / News
Brici, N., Hodkinson, C. and Sullivan‐Mort, G. (2013), Conceptual differences between adolescent and adult impulse buyers, Young Consumers, 14(3), 258-279. https://doi.org/10.1108/YC-01-2013-00340

Board of Investment of Sri Lanka. (2019). Apparel overview. Invest Sri Lanka. http://investsrilanka.com/sectors/apparel-2/

Hofstede- Insights. (2022). Design a culture that will support your strategy. Retrieved from: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country/sri-lanka/ [Accessed on 25 January 2023]

For Conference Paper / Proceedings
Ghani, U., & Jan, F. A. (2011). An exploratory study of the impulse buying behavior of urban consumers in Peshawar. In International conference on business and economics (Vol. 1, pp. 157-159).

Kalose, N. (2019). Comparative study of Impulse buying behavior of Indian students in Dublin and in India (Doctoral dissertation, Dublin Business School).

Kaur, P., & Singh, R. (2007). Uncovering retail shopping motives of Indian youth. Young consumers.

Kongakaradecha, S., & Khemarangsan, A. (2012). A pilot study of impulse buying behavior in Bangkok, Thailand. In Proceedings of the 2nd National and International Graduate Study Conference, Bangkok, Thailand (pp. 148-164). DOI:10.14707/ajbr.140001

Khan, S. N. (2014). Qualitative research method-phenomenology. Asian Social Science, 10(21), 298.

Shamini, N. (2016). A study on factors affecting impulse buying behavior of consumers in the supermarket special reference to food city, Sri Lanka.