IJBA Volume 3, Issue 1, 2023

Development, Validity, and Reliability of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) Module as a Tool to Enhance Self-Esteem among Juvenile Offenders in Juvenile Rehabilitation
Nur Sharina Binti Cik Ibrahim, Syaripah Ruzaini Bt Syed Aris

ABSTRACT
This research aimed to develop the Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) module as a tool to enhance self-esteem among juvenile offenders in juvenile rehabilitation and to examine the validity and reliability of the module. The construction of this module is based on the module construction procedures from Jamaluddin (2005) and Russell (1974), which is based on the construction of goals, theory, rationale, targets, needs, and objectives of the module. This module is built based on Russell’s Model approach (1974) which contains 8 steps of module construction. This study design used a combination of survey and qualitative study. To measure the reliability of the module and the instrument, the researcher runs a pilot test with one subject and goes through the whole session of the module with the subject and conducts an interview with the subject. The interview questions for reliability are based on the module objective. This method of reliability is called cross-check technique and repetition of interviews. (Vale 1998; Russell 1974). While to obtain the validity of the module for this study, the external critic’s method by the module expert was used. The validity content of the module is calculated by a formula and producing 93% of the average score (high validity).

Keywords: Neuro-Linguistic Programming Module, Self-Esteem, Juveniles Offender, validity, reliability.

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The Role of Cultural Dimensions in Shaping Impulse Buying Behavior among Young Consumers: A Study of the Apparel Industry in Sri Lanka
Asanga Ranasinghe, Chok Nyen Vui, Mamata Bhandar, Supaprawat Siripipatthanakul

ABSTRACT
With the advent of digital connectivity, customers, especially young customers are getting more and more exposed to world trends and apparel styles in the world of fashion today providing opportunities for marketers to promote impulse buying of products or services that are greatly influenced by the cultural background of these customers. This study aims to determine the role of the cultural dimensions in shaping the impulse buying behavior of young customers in apparel shopping, specifically in Sri Lanka. The study is based on the qualitive research that uses primary data through twenty semi-structured interviews, and secondary data related to cultural dimensions of Sri Lanka collected through Hofstede’s official website. Moreover, a thematic analysis technique has been adopted to analyze the interview responses. The findings revealed that young customers in Sri Lanka engages in impulsive buying occasionally. Usually, the categories that get bought impulsively are cloths, beauty and personal care products while their purchase decisions is generally based on others’ opinions as Sri Lanka is a collectivist society where people value family, extended family, or extended partnerships. It was observed though Sri Lankans prefer a more long-term orientation, this study found that most customers saw short term utility value in their clothing based on the most recent trends and styles rather than buying for their future usage.

Keywords: impulse buying behavior, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, power distance, long-term-short-term orientation, masculinity-femininity

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In-text citation
(Ranasinghe et al., 2023)
Ranasinghe et al. (2023)

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